Passive filters allocation in unbalanced distribution network with high penetration of distributed generation


  • Marcelo Semensato Instituto Federal de Goiás
  • Jaqueline Oliveira Rezende Instituto Federal de Goiás
  • José Antônio Lambert Instituto Federal de Goiás



Allocation of passive filters, unbalanced distribution network, ideal compensation method, harmonic components, distributed generation


The purpose of this paper is the allocation of passive filters in an unbalanced power network with high penetration of distributed generation to minimize the costs of power losses in the distribution lines, including power losses caused by harmonic components and neutral conductor power losses due to unbalanced loads. The harmonic components and the fundamental current generated by the distributed generation cause a voltage increase in the generation bus, and the voltages in the network above the limit allowed by standard are reduced by allocating passive filters without cutting the active power in the distributed generation. The unbalance and reactive power compensation is performed by the ideal compensation method applied to the distribution network. The tests are for the IEEE 34 bus network, with the fourth wire in the simulation being the isolated neutral. The scatter search metaheuristic applied in the simulation tends to minimize the costs of power losses in the lines and the costs of the passive filters allocated in the medium voltage distribution network, meeting the operational constraints of the network.


Não há dados estatísticos.


ANEEL - AGÊNCIA NACIONAL DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA. Procedimentos de Distribuição de Energia Elétrica no Sistema Elétrico Nacional – PRODIST (2021). Available: (Accessed May 2023).

Au, MT and Milanovic, JV (2007) ‘Planning Approaches for the Strategic Placement of Passive Harmonic Filters in Radial Distribution Networks’, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 347-353. DOI:

CCEE - Câmera de Comercialização de Energia Elétrica. [Online]. Available: (Accessed May 2023).

Ciric, RM, Feltrin, AP and Ochoa, LF (2003) ‘Power Flow in Four-Wire Distribution Networks-General Approach’, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 1283–1290. DOI:

Emanuel, AE (2011) Power Definitions and the Physical Mechanism of Power Flow. Ed. WILEY-IEEE PRESS. DOI:

Firmes, VP, Silva, A, Chaves, GLD, Celeste, WC (2018) ‘Uma análise do consumo de energia elétrica na UFES - campus São Mateus’, Latin American Journal of Energy Research – Lajer, v.5, n.2, pp. 1-11. DOI:

Flota, M, Ali, B, Villanueva, C and Pérez, M (2016) ‘Passivity-Based Control for a Photovoltaic Inverter with Power Factor Correction and Night Operation’, IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 3569-3574. DOI:

Hong, Y and Chiu, C (2010) ‘Passive Filter Planning Using Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation’, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 939-946. DOI:

Huanca, DH and Gallego, LA (2021) ‘Chu and Beasley Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Transmission Network Expansion Planning Problem Considering Active Power Losses’, IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1967-1975. DOI:

IEEE Recommended Practice and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems (IEEE STD 519-2014), (2014), New York.

Jannesar, MR, Sedighi, A, Savaghebi, M and Anvari-Moghaddam, A (2019) ‘Optimal probabilistic planning of passive harmonic filters in distribution networks with high penetration of photovoltaic generation’, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 110, pp. 332-348. DOI:

Lee, S and Wu, C (1993) ‘On-line Reactive Power Compensation Schemes for Unbalanced three Phase Four Wire Distribution Feeders’, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1958–1965. DOI:

León, L, Martinez, M, Ontiveros, LJ and Mercado, PE (2022) ‘Devices and Control Strategies for Voltage Regulation Under Influence of Photovoltaic Distributed Generation. A review’, IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 731-745. DOI:

Martí, R, Laguna, M and Glover, F (2006) ‘Principles of scatter search’, European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 169, pp. 359-372 DOI:

Melo, ID, Pereira, JLR, Variz, AM and Ribeiro, PF (2020) ‘Allocation and sizing of single tuned passive filters in three-phase distribution systems for power quality improvement’, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 180, pp. 1-12. DOI:

Oliva, AR and Balda, JCA (2003) ‘A PV dispersed generator: A power quality analysis within the IEEE 519’, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 525–530. DOI:

Oliveira, LCO, Neto, MCB and Souza, JB (2000) ‘Load Compensationin Four-Wire Electrical Power Systems’, IEEE 2000 International Conference on Power System Technology, pp. 1575-1580.

Semensato, M. (2019) ‘Application of the Ideal Compensation Method in Unbalanced Distribution Network Considering Harmonics’, IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Latin America, pp. 1-6. DOI:

Semensato, M (2022) ‘Capacitor placement in unbalanced distribution networks to minimize reactive and unbalance power losses’, Congresso Brasileiro de Automática, vol. 2, no.1, pp. 1-8.

Shakeri, S, Esmaeili, S and Koochi, MHR (2022) “Passive Harmonic Filter Design Considering Voltage Sag Performance - Applicable to Large Industries”, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 1714-1722. DOI:

Yang, N and Adinda, EW (2021) ‘MATPOWER-Based Harmonic Power Flow Analysis for Power Systems With Passive Power Filters’, IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 167322-167331. DOI:




Como Citar

Semensato, M., Oliveira Rezende, J., & Antônio Lambert, J. (2023). Passive filters allocation in unbalanced distribution network with high penetration of distributed generation. Latin American Journal of Energy Research, 10(2), 23–33.